Wednesday, 30 March 2011

Model Pembelajaran Cooperative Learning


Proses pembelajaran pada satuan pendidikan diselenggarakan secara interaktif, inspiratif, menyenangkan, menantang, memotivasi peserta didik untuk berpartisipasi aktif serta memberikan ruang yang cukup bagi prakarsa, kreativitas dan kemandirian sesuai dengan bakat, minat dan perkembangan fisik serta psikologis peserta didik.   
      (Peraturan Pemerintah No.19/2005 pasal 19) 

Guru perlu menguasai dan dapat menerapkan berbagai strategi pembelajaran yang meliputi pendekatan, metode, dan teknik pembelajaran secara spesifik. Penguasaan model pembelajaran akan mempengaruhi keberhasilan peserta didik dalam pembelajaran. 

       Model pembelajaran adalah bentuk pembelajaran yang menggambar-kan kegiatan dari awal sampai akhir yang disajikan secara khas oleh guru. Dalam model pembelajaran terdapat  strategi  pencapaian kompetensi  peserta didik dengan pendekatan,  metode, dan teknik pembelajaran tertentu. 

Tidak ada model pembelajaran yang paling efektif  untuk semua mata pelajaran atau untuk semua materi.

Pemilihan model pembelajaran untuk diterapkan guru di dalam kelas mempertimbangkan beberapa hal:

      1. tujuan pembelajaran
      2. sifat materi pelajaran
      3. ketersediaan fasilitas
      4. kondisi peserta didik
      5. alokasi  waktu yang tersedia

Ciri-ciri Model Pembelajaran yang Baik
      1. Adanya keterlibatan intelektual – emosional  peserta didik melalui kegiatan mengalami, menganalisis, berbuat, dan pembentukan sikap.
2. Adanya keikutsertaan peserta didik secara aktif dan kreatif selama pelaksanaan model pembelajaran 
3. Guru bertindak sebagai fasilitator, koordinator, mediator dan motivator kegiatan belajar peserta didik
4. Penggunaan berbagai metode, alat dan media pembelajaran

Model-model Pembelajaran
A.      Example by Example
       Langkah-langkah :
1.       Guru mempersiapkan gambar-gambar sesuai dengan tujuan pembelajaran
2.       Guru menempelkan gambar di papan atau ditayangkan melalui OHP
3.       Guru memberi petunjuk dan memberi kesempatan pada peserta didik untuk memperhatikan/menganalisis gambar
4.       Melalui diskusi kelompok 2-3 orang peserta didik, hasil diskusi dari analisis gambar tersebut dicatat pada kertas
5.       Tiap kelompok diberi kesempatan membacakan hasil diskusinya
6.       Mulai dari komentar/hasil diskusi peserta didik, guru mulai menjelaskan materi sesuai tujuan yang ingin dicapai
7.       Kesimpulan
t, minat dan perkembangan fisik serta psikologis peserta didik. oses pembelajaran pada satuan pendidikan diselenggarakan secara interaktif, inspiratif , menyenangkan, menantang, memotivasi peserta didik untuk berpartisipasi aktif serta memberikan ruang yang cukup bagi prakarsa, kreativitas dan kemandirian sesuai dengan bakat, minat dan perkembangan fisik serta psikologis peserta didik.

Friday, 11 March 2011

Approaches, methods, procedures, and techniques

Approach : this refers to “theories about the nature of language and language learning that serve as the source of practices and principles in language teaching”. It offers a model of language competence. An approach describes how people acquire their knowledge of the language and makes statements about conditions which will promote successful language learning.

Method : a method is the practical realization of an approach. Methods include various procedures and techniques as part of their standard fare.

Procedure : a procedure is an ordered sequence of techniques. A procedure is a sequence which can be described in terms such as first you do this, then you do that… Smaller than a method and bigger than technique.

Technique : a common technique when using video material is called “silent viewing”. This is where the teacher plays the video with no sound. Silent viewing is a single activity rather than a sequence, and as such is a technique rather than a whole procedure.

A term that is also used in discussions about teaching is “model” – used to describe typical procedures, usually for teachers in training. Such models offer abstractions of these procedures, designed to guide teaching practice.

The Grammar – Translation Method
This is a method that has been used by language teachers for many years.

At one time it was called Classical Method,since it was first used in the teaching of the classical languages,Latin and Greek.

Earlier in this century,it was used for the purpose of helping students read and appreciate foreign language literature.

Classes are taught in the students' mother tongue,with little active use of the target language;

Vocabulary is taught in the form of isolated word lists;

Elaborate explanations of grammar are always provided;

Reading of difficult text is begun early in the course of study;

Little attention is paid to the content of text,which are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis.

Audio-lingual methodology owes its existence to the Behaviourist models of learning using the Stimulus-Response-Reinforcement model, it attempted, through a continuous process of such positive reinforcement, to engender good habits in language learners.

Audio-lingualism relied heavily on drills like substitution to form these habits.

Habit-forming drills have remained popular among teachers and students, and teachers who feel confident with the linguistic restriction of such procedures.

Presentation, Practice, and Production
A variation on Audio-lingualism in British-based teaching and elsewhere is the procedure most often referred to as PPP, which stands for Presentation, Practice, and Production. In this procedure the teacher introduces a situation which contextualises the language to be taught. The students now practice the language using accurate reproduction techniques such as choral repetition, individual repetition, and cue-response drills

The Communicative Approach

The communicative approach or Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is the name which was given to a set of beliefs which included not only a re-examination of what aspects of language to teach but also a shift in emphasis on how to teach!

Some methods
These methods developed in the 1970s and 1980s as humanistic approaches to remove psychological barrieis to learning.

Community Language Learning
- students sitting in a circle
- a counsellor or a knower
- making the utterance

The Silent Way
- the teacher says as little as possible
- interacting with physical objects, especially with Cuisenaire rods

Total Physical Response (TPR)
This method is developed to reduce stress people feel while studying foreign languages. Learners are allowed to speak when they are ready.
1. Using commands to direct behaviour
2. Role reversal
3. Action sequence

1. The students' understanding of the target language should be developed before speaking.
2. Students can initially learn one part of the language rapidly by moving their bodies.
3. Feelings of success and low anxiety facilitate learning.
4. Language learning is more effective when it is fun.
5. Students are expected to make errors when they first begin speaking. Teachers should be tolerant of them. Work on the fine details of the language should be postponed until students have become somewhat proficient.

Sample Videos of Fun Teaching to watch

Sunday, 27 February 2011

Teaching Methods for English Teachers

Their eyes are on you. Waiting, watchful, they follow your every move. You begin to sweat as you realize that everything you say and do will affect the outcome of the rest of the year. You are about to begin on the most important adventure yet: you are about to begin a year’s worth of lessons. Are you ready? Do you have the “map” you’ll need to get this adventure started? Will you make it to the “X” on the map? Possibly one of the most important “tools” for a teacher is their teaching method.

The Battle Between the Two Parties
Liberals believe group work is a more effective teaching method. They believe in student-centered curriculum, which is good for student motivation, but is not a highly efficient method.

Conservatives believe individual student work is the most effective learning method. They believe in subject-centered curriculum, which is the best of what has been thought and written. It uses common elements, familiarity, and makes good progression. However, the world is not organized into subjects.

1. The Lecture Method
Possibly the most popular and widespread teaching method is lecturing, in which the teacher gives information and the students listen or take notes. Lecturing is a useful way of imparting a great deal of information quickly, but it is passive for students. Keeping the students’ attention is a major dilemma educators have to face. The best use of lecturing is in combination with other methods; this helps your students retain their interest and attention, allows for more student participation, and emphasizes different learning styles.

2. Small Group Discussion
An equally popular teaching method is small group discussions (or cooperative learning), in which students are working together in groups to solve problems, giving knowledge a much-needed social context. It makes the students responsible for themselves and each other, and creates a community of learners and writers.
There are drawbacks to small group discussion, such as a louder classroom and the occasional giggling of friends in the same groups. These drawbacks can be easily corrected by careful splitting into groups, and constant reminders to keep the noise level low.

3. Questioning Method
This method requires the educator begins the lesson by introducing some provocative idea or question and the students respond. One of the best ways to generate discussion is to ask an open-ended question (one which can't be answered by a simple "yes" or "no"). Questioning tends to be a universal teaching strategy.
There are drawbacks to this teaching method, such as lack of class participation due to discomfort from speaking out loud or misunderstanding the questions given to them. Having a student reword the question or giving the class time to react to the questions are good solutions to these drawbacks.

4. Inquiry/Inductive Teaching
Inductive teaching is an investigative learning process that asks students to pose questions, analyze data, and develop conclusions or generalizations. This teaching method requires educators to “teach kids how to think.” Critical thinking skills are becoming more important; thus, constructivism was created. Constructivism is an approach to teaching and learning based on the premise that cognition (learning) is the result of “mental construction.” In other words, students learn by fitting new information together with what they already know.

Monday, 21 February 2011


Learning another language apart from the mother tongue has always been important for people, because of the reasons such as knowing other cultures, travelling, trade, religion and even need of being a spy in the others. If we examine where and when second language education started, we cannot give a precise answer; however, it is a fact that bilingualism has always been the norm instead of monolingualism. Another point is that this second language education has changed through languages. Romans were trying to learn Greek, and then Latin became popular. Finally, English has the importance now. So, we know why people want to learn other languages, but the question is this. How can they learn these languages? This question has always got the attention of pedagogues, linguists and scientists. The answer to this question has also changed according to reasons why people want to learn languages and what the pedagogues, linguists and scientists understand from teaching language. For example, we can see a trend from written language to oral language. Furthermore, many approaches methods, and techniques have been developed for the needs of language teaching. When we look at them, we can divide the second language teaching to four periods. Although there are not exact names of these periods, we will call them as Classical Period, Alternative Period, Current Communicative Period, and Post-method Era.

Sunday, 20 February 2011

Introduction to "English Teaching Methods" Course

Course Competence 
To increase students understanding of relationship between the contemporary of foreign language teaching with its accompanying of
practical issues and its historical perspective.

Course Description
This course provides students with a number of different theoretical views of language and language teaching methods that serve as source of instruction for practicing in the classroom. This course also should be followed by the students before microteaching practice.      

Possible Topics
I may use the following topics for teaching this course, but I can include some newest teaching methods for the students in order to update them with changes in curriculum and assessment in Indonesia.
        1. Introduction: Historical perspective of language teaching.
2. Approach, method, and technique.
3. Different theoretical views of language and language teaching
4. Principles of the Grammar Translation method
5. Principle of the direct method
6. Techniques of the direct method
7. Principle of the audio lingual method
8. Teaching Techniques in the ALM
9. Principle of the Total Physical Response Method
10. The communicative Approach
11. Contextual teaching and learning
12. Teaching Listening Skills, Reading Skills, Speaking Skills
        13. SMP/MTs/SMA/MA/SMK Textbook study

Brown, H. Douglas. Teaching By Principles An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. New Jersey: Prantice Hall, 1994
Djunaidi, A. Pengembangan Materi Pengajaran Bahasa Inggris Berdasarkan Pendekatan Linguistik Kontrastif. Jakarta: Dekdikbud, 1987
Francis Mackey, William. Language Teaching Analyses. London: Longman Group Ltd., 1974
Little Wood, William. Communicative Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983
Richard, Jack C. and Theodore, Rogers. Approach and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988
Sears, Susan. Contextual Teaching and Learning: A Primer For Effective Instruction. USA: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation, 2002
      Subyakto N., Sri Utari. Metodologi Pengajaran Bahasa. Jakarta: Dekdikbud, 1988